The difference between air and medical oxygen
Medical oxygen contains 98 percent pure oxygen. It does not contain impurities like moisture, dust or other gases. In 2015, Oxygen was added to the list of essential drugs in the country. The WHO has also added oxygen to essential medicines. Atmospheric air contains only 21 percent oxygen, so it cannot be used in medical emergencies. That is why medical oxygen in liquid form is produced in large plants in a special scientific way.
How medical oxygen is made
Pure oxygen is first separated from the atmosphere. The air contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other gases like argon, helium, neon, krypton, lead. The boiling points in all these gases are very low, but different. The boiling point of oxygen is -183.0 C. As the air cools, oxygen separates. When air is collected, all the gases will become liquid as they cool. Separate them and submit in liquid form. Thus up to 99.5 percent liquid oxygen is formed. Prior to processing, the filter cools the air by removing moisture, dust and oils and other impurities.
What happens to the boiling point
When water cools to 0 से C, it turns to ice. If the same water is heated to 100 से C, it boils and turns into steam which turns into gas. In the same way, all the gases present in the atmosphere are boiled at very low temperatures to become gases. Boiling at -183 ° C converts oxygen into gas. We can also say that if oxygen cools more than -1 °° C, it will be converted into a liquid.
Thus oxygen is distributed
Manufacturers keep liquid oxygen in large tankers. The refrigerant is then sent from the cryogenic tanker to the distributor. By lowering the pressure of oxygen it fills a variety of cylinders in the form of gas. These cylinders are supplied to hospitals, suppliers and the needy. Some large hospitals also have their own small oxygen generating plants.
Why is there a lack of oxygen?
Before Covid-1, the daily medical oxygen consumption in the country was 1000 to 1200 MT. Now Corona’s cases are on the rise. Oxygen is currently proving effective in treating infections. That is why India now needs about 5000 metric tons of oxygen per day. Delhi Health Minister Satyander Jain said on Tuesday night that Delhi needs 700 metric tonnes of oxygen. Supply is facing difficulties due to high demand. Only 1200 to 1500 cryogenic tankers are available for transporting liquid oxygen to the distributor. Even at the distributor level, there is a shortage of empty cylinders to convert liquid oxygen into gas and fill it into cylinders.
550 liters of oxygen in 24 hours
When an adult is not doing any kind of work, he needs 7 to 8 liters of air per minute to breathe. That is, about 11,000 liters of air per day. The air that travels from the lungs to the lungs contains 20 percent oxygen, while the respiratory tract contains 15 percent oxygen. Only 5 percent of oxygen is converted to carbon dioxide. According to experts, a person needs about 550 liters of pure oxygen in 24 hours. Physical workers need more oxygen.
Usually a cylinder with a capacity of 7 cubic meters
The hospital usually uses an oxygen cylinder with a capacity of 7 cubic meters. Its height is about 4 feet 6 inches. It has a capacity of 47 liters, but the pressure can fill up to 7000 liters of oxygen. If this cylinder is constantly giving oxygen to a patient, it can last up to 20 hours. The government has fixed the maximum price of 1 cubic meter of liquid medical oxygen at Rs 15.22 and medical oxygen at Rs 25.71. There is a separate GST charge on it.
Restricting oxygen supply for industrial purposes
Union Health Minister Dr. Harsh Vardhan today said that the Government of India is taking several steps to increase the supply of oxygen to hospitals. The supply of oxygen for industrial purposes will be restricted from 22 April 2021 until further notice. This will allow the available surplus oxygen to be used as medical oxygen. It does not apply to 9 industries, including injection and capsule, pharmaceutical, steel plants, oxygen cylinder manufacturers, petroleum industry etc. According to sources, Reliance, Tata Steel, SAIL and Jindal Steel have started supplying oxygen for the treatment of corona. IFFCO is also setting up an oxygen plant, from which hospitals will provide free oxygen. With an investment of Rs. It will take about 15 days for the plant to become operational.
Central oxygen tanks in large hospitals
Some large hospitals have a centralized oxygen cabin or tank, from where the oxygen needed for the bed is supplied through a pipeline. In small hospitals oxygen is sent in large cylinders, then through a pipeline to the patient’s bed. Even in small hospitals, where there is no pipeline facility, small cylinders of oxygen are installed near the patient’s bed.
It is more effective to provide oxygen through a non-reabsorbing mask
Oxygen is no less than an elixir for cocid-infected patients. This is benefiting many patients. How to give oxygen to the patient? On this Dr. Smith Wadher said it would be more effective if the corona gave the infected person oxygen through a non-refractory mask (NRM). In this high flow oxygen can be given to any patient. In NRM, the patient does not get outside air. It should be connected to the oxygen cylinder with tubing. The patient’s nose and mouth are then covered and a mask is applied. Oxygen saturation should then be monitored by a pulse oximeter. It is important to note that the patient’s saturation is above 95.
For example, if the patient’s saturation is 88 with a flow of 4 liters per minute, then the patient needs more oxygen. Its flow has to be increased. If the saturation goes above 2 minutes per minute, it can be considered as fine. Give oxygen with equal flow for one to two days. Then reduce the flow later to see if the patient’s saturation is not reduced. If normal saturation does not occur, the flow will have to be increased. Patients may also be given medications such as dexamethasone / methylprednisolone. This helps to open the airways. If NRM is not found, simple masks can also be used.
18% GST deducted from oxygen cylinder
Satish Mahajan of Jalandhar Enterprises says, ‘I have a job in medicine at Bhagirath Place. We sell 10 liter oxygen cylinders. We get it for Rs. 4500, which we sell for around Rs. It is subject to 18 per cent GST separately. There is a demand from the government that if GST is removed at the time of the epidemic, the needy will benefit a little. In addition to these cylinders, the flowmeter has to be taken separately, which has a clock. According to the doctor’s instructions, the patient is given oxygen by setting the flowmeter. There is a shortage of flowmeters in the market. The cylinder can be found, but it is useless without a flowmeter. A 10 liter cylinder can give oxygen to a patient for 4 to 5 hours. The price of an oxygen center, which is available in the market at Rs 30,000 to Rs 35,000, has also reached Rs 50,000. Patients with money are buying it. Those who have less money are keeping cylinders in the house.
The oxygen nucleus is also missing
“We supply oxygen to government and private hospitals,” said Arun Kashyap, an oxygen supplier from Burari. We cannot supply in the current situation. The manufacturer is unable to provide stock even after payment in advance. There are a lot of calls coming from hospitals. There is no refilling in the market either. On a normal day, a 10 liter cylinder was filled at Rs. Now even if someone pays a higher price, the work is not done. Oxygen concentrations are also not available in the market. We also provide homecare oxygen through hospitals. Hospitals have iron cylinders in which keys are used. It’s heavy. At the same time, aluminum cylinders are a bit more expensive, which women also operate at home. It can be easily lifted. It is used to transport the patient from home to the hospital.