The 34 most amazing scientific achievements of 2020 include the ancient tombs of the mummy, historic rocket launches and the fastest vaccine in history

Scientists and researchers around the world have accomplished impressive things by 2020. They have unearthed huge caches of ancient bones and sarcophagi, discovered new types of black holes and found water that could house alien life in new places in the solar system.

It was all in the middle of a pandemic, which stimulated its own fast-moving branch of science. In the last year, coronavirus researchers have sequenced the genome of the pathogen, lifted the veil on the nature of the infection and immunity, and developed vaccines that are now administered in the United States.

However, the pandemic has slowed NASA and its space flight partners. They still found time to launch a new Mars rover, a record sun probe and the first commercial astronaut mission.

These and other achievements improve scientists’ understanding of the coronavirus, our planet, and the surrounding cosmos.

As a new year approaches, here’s a look back at some of the most amazing scientific discoveries and achievements of 2020.